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C++ vs Java | 20 Key Variations between C++ and Java


Differences between C++ and Java

Introduction to C++

C++ was also known by the name “C with Classes”, which is a general purpose object-oriented programming language. Bjarne Stroustrup developed this language in 1979 at Bell Labs. C++ vs Java helps you to understand the basic difference between each language. It is a multi-paradigm programming language as it supports both procedural and object-oriented programming languages. C++ has the property of the C programming language and the classes and objects for user-defined data types. C++ is used with graphics applications, operating systems, desktop applications, high-performance applications, for instance, space probes, E-commerce, smart watches, game development, cloud distributed system, databases, compilers, etc. This blog on C++ vs Java will help you learn about the difference between C++ and Java and the basis of different features.

The C++ is being used by top tech giants companies such as Microsoft, IBM, Google, Meta, Amazon, etc. C++ has the properties of Object Oriented language such as Encapsulation, Polymorphism, Inheritance, etc. But without having classes and objects, the code of C++ can be compiled, hence it is also known as a semi object oriented language. Now, it is not only an extension of the C programming language but with modern updates and high performance it has become a popular and in-demand programming language.

Features of C++ Language

  1. Object-Oriented Language (OOPs): C++ is an object-oriented language that means it has properties like classes, objects, polymorphism, inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, data hiding, etc. The OOPs help in solving problems effectively, prevent data redundancy and ensure the flexibility of the code.
  2. Lambda Function: C++ supports the anonymous function called a lambda expression. The syntax of the lambda function is given as:
[capture](parameters) -> return_type { function_body }
  1. Static and Dynamic Memory Allocation: In C++ memory can be allocated during compile time that is static allocation and dynamically i.e., during run time. Many times, the programmer is not aware of how much memory would be required to store the particular information in the defined variable, so in this case, the size of required memory can be defined at run time. The dynamically allocated memory can be allocated using malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), etc functions.
  2. Fast and Powerful: Being a compiler based language C++ executes the codes faster. Also, it contains many built-in functions, data types, etc that make C++ a powerful language and the first choice for the programmer.
  3. Templates Creation: In C++ templates are used for generic programming, that is templating is used to create class, generic functions, etc which is used to perform particular tasks for more than one data type.

Introduction to Java

Java was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and it was released on May 23, 1995. Java programming language is being used by thousands of Software Development Companies and millions of developers around the globe. Today, Java is one of the most popular languages for developing Software Applications and solving real world problems. Java is a high-level object oriented language that supports the feature of WORA – Write Once and Run Anywhere, which means, compiled Java code can be run on all platforms without any need for recompilation. 

As per the Java home page, more than 1 billion computers and 3 billion mobile phones use Java programming for application development. 

Features of Java Language

  1. Platform Independent: Java is a platform independent language, which means you can write once and run anywhere (WORA). The compiled Java code can be executed on any machine without any changes. 
  2. Automatic Garbage Collection: Java is a garbage collected language, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) automatically deallocates the memory blocks and programmers don’t need to delete them manually as in the case of C and C++.
  3. Object Oriented Language (OOPs): Java is a pure object oriented language. It supports features like encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, abstraction, data hiding, etc. In Java, everything is an Object.
  4. Multithreading: Java supports multithreading, which means multiple tasks or functions of the same program can execute in parallel. It helps to maximize the utilization of resources and programs can be executed sequentially and in a timely manner.
  5. Memory Management System: Java offers a strong memory management system that helps to eliminate the errors and check the code both at compile time and run time.

Difference Between C++ and Java

The below table helps you to understand the difference between C++ vs Java

Parameters C++ Java
History Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ in 1979 at Bells Lab and it was first released in Oct 1985 Java was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and it was first released on May 23, 1995
Programming Paradigm C++ support procedural and Object Oriented programming language Java only supports Object Oriented programming language
Platform Dependency It is a platform dependent language and needs to compile for different platforms Java is platform independent, that is we can write once and run anywhere
Compilation & Interpretation C++ language can be only compiled and cannot be interpreted Java language can be compiled and interpreted
Memory Management In C++ memory management is manual, so we need to allocate or deallocate memory manually In Java memory management is system-controlled
Portability C++ is non-portable language Java is a portable language
Pointers C++ strongly supports pointers Java have limited support on pointers
Parameter Passing  C++ supports both Pass by value and Pass by reference Java supports only Pass by value technique
Overloading C++ supports both operator and method overloading Java supports only method overloading
Thread Support C++ doesn’t have in-built thread support, it depends upon third party threading libraries Java have in-built thread support, with a class “thread”
Documentation Comment C++ don’t support documentation comment Java have built-in support for documentation comment 
Compatibility C++ is compatible with the C programming language Java is not compatible with any other programming language
Goto Statement C++ supports goto statement Java doesn’t support the goto statement
Multiple Inheritance In C++ both single inheritance and multiple inheritances are supported In Java, only single inheritance is supported
Structure and Union C++ supports Structure and Union Java does not support Structure and Union
Virtual Keyword Virtual keyword is supported in C++, so we can decide whether to override a function or not In Java, there is no virtual keyword, so all non-static methods are virtual by default Java
Hardware C++ is closer to the hardware, that’s why C++ is often used for system programming, compiler, operating system, gaming, etc Java is not closer to the hardware so it is mostly used for application development
Data and Function C++ offers both global scope and namespace scope, so the function and data can exist outside of class as well In Java, there is no global scope so all data and functions need to be in the class, however, there can be a package scope
Runtime Error Detection In C++ the runtime error detection is handled by the programmer In C++ the runtime error detection is handled by the system
Root Hierarchy No root hierarchy Support single root hierarchy
Input and Output  Cin and Cout are used for input and output respectively System. in and System.out.println is used for input and output respectively

Example of C++ and Java Program

Addition of Two Numbers in c++

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main() {
int a, b, sum=0;
cout << "Enter the value for two integers: ";
cin >> a >> b;
// sum of two numbers in stored in variable sum
sum = a + b;
// prints the sum of two numbers 
cout << a << " + " <<  b  << " = " << sum;     
return 0;
}

Addition of Two Numbers in c++

import java.util.Scanner;  // Importing the Scanner class 
class Addition {
  public static void main (String[] args) {
    int x, y, sum=0;
    Scanner myObj = new Scanner(System.in); // Creating a Scanner object
    System.out.println("Enter the first number:");
    x = myObj.nextInt();    // Take the user input
    System.out.println ( " Enter the second number:" );
    y = myObj.nextInt();   // Take the user input
    sum = x + y;          // Calculate the sum of two numbers x + y
    System.out.println ("Sum is: " + sum);    // Print the sum
  }
}

Conclusion

So, as we have seen the difference between c++ vs java, we came to know that both languages are being used by top tech companies and learning these languages would prove to be very useful.

People who are working in the field of software development or want to work in the software industry basically preferred Java because of its flexibility, diversity, templates, automatic garbage collection, etc makes Java useful for web based applications. Whereas, people looking to make their career in game development, low-level programming, system programming, building operating systems, etc preferred C++ because of its speed, performance, closeness to hardware, etc.

Frequently Asked Questions

Which programming language is better C++ or Java?

It would be a difficult task to choose one programming language between C++ vs Java. Both languages have their own advantages and disadvantages. C++ is most probably used when we are working on system programs, gaming or low-level programming whereas Java is more used for software development or web based application development.
Choosing the right language depends upon the application that we are developing. The best way is to understand the use case of the software and then conclude which one is fit for the application.

Which programming language is more powerful C++ or Java?

The powerfulness depends upon the criteria on which we are judging the language. For example, if we are talking about speed, high performance, and low-level programming then C++ is more powerful than Java. On the other hand, if we are judging on the basis of templates, flexibility, automatic garbage collection, and memory management then Java would be more powerful than C++.

What is the main difference between C++ vs Java?

C++ is a procedural and object oriented language, whereas Java is only object oriented language. The C++ compiler compiles the source code and converts it into machine code that’s why it is platform dependent in Java the source code is first converted into bytecode using its compiler and then the Java interpreter executes the bytecode at runtime and produces the output, that’s why it is platform independent.

Is Java Virtual Machine (JVM) written in C++?

Yes, Java Virtual Machine (JVM) by Sun and IBM is written in C++ and some other JVM’s are written in C language.

Which programming language is better for beginners, C++ or Java?

It depends upon the person to person’s interest. If someone wants to make a career in gaming, low-level programming, system programming, etc then C++ would be a preferred language for that person. However, if someone is looking to grow their career in software development, application development, etc then they can prefer Java over C++ because of its rich libraries, templates, flexibility, portability, etc.

Are C++ and Java offer the same features?

They are quite similar in the same context such as both are object oriented languages, having similar kinds of syntax, primitive data types, object handling, can be used for application development, etc. But in other cases, they are completely different such as memory management, garbage collection, inheritance, polymorphism, etc.

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